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Greek Comedy & Norse Tragedy: Looking for A Truer Story

Greek mythology and Norse mythology can educate us much about what it means to be human; what they can’t do, however, is present ultimate hope. For that, we need a truer story…

This semester I heard the voice of the “Helikonian Muses” as they sang “the song once more in our time” via Hesiod’s Theogony.[1] I love Greek mythology; few bodies of writing are so fertile for the imagination and have so many thinkers, writers, and fellow wonderers playing in the identical house. Hesiod especially is a good poet to take a gaggle of ninth graders by. He brings to life the Homeric surprise of the gods, the hidden enchanted reality behind all things. As Luc Ferry factors out, Greek mythology additionally offers access to nascent Greek philosophy.[2]

Questions of transition of power (Titans to Olympians), the power of love (Eros, who can “unstring the knees of each gods and men”), the position of order and justice in combating chaos, the mandatory conditions for human flourishing—all these and more are clear themes and motifs which arise by way of Hesiod’s poetry. My high schoolers appreciated the inherent structure of the mythology as Hesiod strikes by way of creation (primordial gods) into the first era of divine offspring (Titans) into the Olympian period where at last order, justice, and energy have combined in the determine of Zeus to create a world the place humanity can thrive.

Such thriving is always in the gods’ world. The imaginative and prescient of actuality Hesiod puts forth is just not one of many picture-bearers of YHWH ruling creation, but reasonably puny mortals who reside at the gods’ pleasure. At any point, humans may anger the gods. As Hesiod tells the Prometheus delusion, we notice that the gods’ wrath can come in many kinds: a storm, a curse, a stupendous lady. Regardless of how it really works out, people at all womens robin t shirt with cape zip times have the potential of offending the powerful gods and suffering in flip. For Greek mythology, tragedy is always a chance (and within the works of the dramatists, a chance).

As we wrapped up Hesiod and ready to maneuver to the more anthropocentric Homer, Neil Gaiman launched his lengthy-awaited Norse Mythology.[3] Mr. Gaiman worked from the Eddas, and thus his edition of Norse fantasy reads like an updated edition of Padraic Colum’s Nordic Gods and Heroes. Mr. Gaiman employed sparse prose and dialogue to convey the world of beauty, death, joy, and sorrow which is the Norse cycle. His Odin seems each sensible and mysterious, and the reader wonders whether the choice at Mimer’s Nicely was value it all the way in which till the final tale. Mr. Gaiman’s Thor and Loki are marvelous, and their antagonism drives the humor of the myths.

While educating Hesiod and studying Mr. Gaiman’s Norse Fantasy, I began reflecting on the differences in orientation. Both describe enchanted worlds, beautiful and unusual. Each provide the narrative foundation for pagan religious practices; each mythologies have intrigued hearts and minds for centuries. And but, the 2 mythologies are marked by a profound difference in how they consider tragedy.

For Greek mythology, tragedy lies previously. Cronos severed Ouranos’ testicles, letting time and house start as the sky moved in agony; Zeus in flip attacks and wounds his father Cronos, letting his reign of justice (ordered energy paired with law) start; but Zeus’ reign shouldn’t be solidified till the defeat of Typhon, final child of Gaia and Chaos. The events of the Homeric world and the myths recounted by Apollodorus and Romanized by Ovid all take place in a present time which may look again on the rule of chaos. The tragedy, the threat of final destruction, lies behind Greek fantasy.

In contrast, for Norse mythology, the tragedy at all times lies earlier than them. Ragnarok, the ultimate battle between the gods and the frost giants (which the gods must lose) is always coming. Odin tries to stave it off by recruiting the perfect warriors to Valhalla, however several tales recount the gods’ giving away the instruments they might want to win at the ultimate battle. Loki and his unusual children will triumph: Fenrir Wolf will gnaw; the World-Serpent will squeeze; Hel will receive everyone into her icy realm. In Norse mythology, these occasions are both decided and chosen. Odin perceived shadows, but his actions drive the gods onward to Ragnarok. Frey trades his sword, which alone can defeat Surtur’s flames, womens robin t shirt with cape zip for his giantess wife. Loki follows his winding approach, and in fathering three monstrous youngsters sets the world on a path of doom. Perhaps the most effective instance of the tone of doom pervading the myths comes in the tale of Baldur, probably the most lovely god within the pantheon. Baldur is fated to die, but Loki conspires to have him perish on the hand of his brother. Although all of the world mourned Baldur, at Loki’s disguised refusal to mourn, Hel retained Baldur’s shade for her icy bed. This tale foreshadows the inevitability of the world’s destruction. Gaiman ends his mythology with the inexplicable survival of 4 gods and their renewal of the world and beginning of the following cycle. Tragedy, for Norse mythology, is always coming.

The path of the tragedy gives a sure tone to each mythology.[4] Greek mythology, for all the suffering of Prometheus, has the hope offered by Herakles’ freeing of the condemned. Regardless of the destruction of the city, Baucis and Philemon live to a ripe outdated age and obtain their hearts’ want. Odysseus returns house to Penelope, they usually enjoy their “rituals of old.” Greek mythology has a hope as a result of the gods triumphed over chaos and established a moral order within the cosmos. Norse mythology lacks this word of hope, changing it with inevitable despair. The approaching certainty of Ragnarok casts a shadow of doom over every hero’s achievement; though Loki was caught and punished, he will at some point escape to destroy the world. Even though the gods recovered the youth-giving apples, sooner or later they are going to fade and die. Even though the wall was constructed round Asgard, at some point the town will lie in ruins. Norse mythology presents neither hope nor true joy, but only despair and non permanent pleasure; it reverberates with the words of the Trainer: “Eat, drink, and be merry,” for tomorrow you die.[5]

Each womens robin t shirt with cape zip of those mythologies taps into truths in regards to the human existence; as a result of they do so, they are going to continue to endure as towering monuments of human literature. As explanatory narratives of the world, nonetheless, they fail to match the fantastic thing about what Tolkien referred to as the “True myth” of the Christian Gospel.[6] The place Greek mythology often hides horror beneath a guise of comedy (what number of instances ought to Zeus have been condemned as a rapist ) and Norse mythology leaves no room for precise human achievement, Christianity tells a distinct story. On this story, God saw that mankind had doomed itself to eternal torment. God took it upon Himself to fulfill justice, and died on behalf of mankind. The cross is the tragic occasion of Christianity; the moment the place God died appears just like the second when all is lost. And yet, as Tolkien explains, this eucatastrophe is the “good disaster” where victory is achieved. In the loss of life of Christ, salvation for mankind is won (proved by the Resurrection). The potential for eternal glory in resurrected, perfected humanity is achieved. Relatively than locating tragedy in the mythical ahistorical previous or the endlessly future, Christianity locates tragedy and victory in time on a cross in Jerusalem two millennia ago.[7] In so doing, Christianity gives an actual tragedy which concludes in real hope for mankind.

Greek mythology and Norse mythology can teach us much about what it means to be human; what they can’t do, nonetheless, is provide ultimate hope. For that, we want a truer story.

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Notes:
[1] Hesiod, Apostolos N. Athanassakis (Translator). Theogony, 2nd Version. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).

[2] Luc Ferry. The Knowledge of the Myths: How Greek Mythology can Change your Life. (New York: Harper Perrenial, 2014), sixteen-17.

[3] Neil Gaiman. Norse Mythology. (New York: W.W. Norton & Firm, 2017).
[4] My because of Fr. William F. Lynch for this perception in Christ and Apollo: The Dimensions of the Literary Imagination. (Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2004), 106. He writes, “I have advised that the tragic finite is a motion through and within the infinite which takes the ordered and important form of a march by completely different phases, culminating in the final instrument of demise and helplessness.”

[5] Ecclesiastes 8:15 (ESV)—“ And i commend joy, for man has nothing higher beneath the solar but to eat and drink and be joyful, for this will go together with him in his toil through the times of his life that God has given him underneath the solar.”

[6] J.R.R. Tolkien. “On Fairy Tales.” pdf. Final accessed 3/22/2017.

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