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Atomic Number And Mass Number

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The atomic variety of an element is equal to the variety of protons within the nucleus of its atom. The atomic number is also referred to as proton number of the factor. Additional, in an atom, number of protons is equal to the variety of electrons. Therefore, atomic quantity can also be equal to the number of electrons in an atom of the ingredient. Thus,

Atomic number of a component is equal to the variety of protons in the nucleus of its atom or the number of additional nuclear electrons.

Atomic number is denoted by the letter z.
Atomic Quantity (Z) = Variety of protons =Number of electrons

For example, an atom of magnesium superman shirt under tux contains 12 protons, due to this fact, its atomic quantity is 12.
All of the atoms of a selected element comprise same number of protons of their nuclei. Subsequently, all of the atoms of a component have identical atomic number. Atoms of different parts include completely different variety of protons and therefore no two elements can have similar atomic quantity. Thus, each factor has its characteristic atomic number which can be utilized to establish the component.

For example, once we say a component with atomic number superman shirt under tux thirteen, we’re referring to aluminum. No different element has atomic number 13.

MASS Number
It has already been said that mass of an atom is mainly concentrated in the nucleus. Within the nucleus, there are protons and neutrons. From this it follows that mass of an atom is primarily attributable to protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are collectively called nucleons as they’re current within the nucleus of an atom.

The total variety of protons and neutrons in the nucleus known as mass number of the atom.
It is generally represented by the letter A.

Mass Number (A) = Variety of protons (Z)+ Variety of neutrons (N)= Number of nucleons
The variety of protons in the nucleus is equal to atomic number, Z whereas the variety of neutrons within the nucleus is generally called neutron number, N.

Mass number gives the approximate atomic mass of the element. For instance, mass variety of magnesium is 24 because it contains 12 protons and 12 neutrons in its nucleus. Each proton

and neutron has relative mass roughly 1 u. Therefore, atomic mass of magnesium is 12 u + 12 u = 24 u.

Calculation of Number of Electrons, Protons and Neutrons
From the knowledge of atomic quantity and mass variety of a component it is possible to calculate number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an atom of the element. For instance,

atomic quantity and mass number of aluminum are thirteen and 27 respectively. Variety of electrons, protons and neutrons in an atom of it can be calculated as under:

Variety of protons = Atomic quantity = 13
Number of electrons = Atomic quantity= thirteen

Variety of neutrons = Mass number – Atomic quantity= 27-thirteen = 14.
SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 5.1. Calculate the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in the following species:
(i) Phosphorus atom (ii) Phosphide ion (P3-)

Mass numbers: P = 31, Mg = 24
Atomic numbers: P = 15, Mg = 12.

Resolution. (i) Phosphorus atom
Variety of electrons = Atomic quantity= 15

Variety of protons = Atomic quantity= 15
Variety of neutrons = Mass number-Atomic number

= 31-15 = sixteen.
(ii) Phosphide ion (P3-)

Phosphide ion (P3-) = Phosphorus atom + 3 electrons
p3- = P+ 3e-

Thus, phosphide ion has similar variety of protons and neutrons as phosphorus atom but has three electrons more.

Variety of electrons = 15 + 3 = 18
Number of protons = 15

Variety of neutrons = 31- 15 = 16.
(iii) Magnesium ion (Mg2+)

Mg2+ ion is formed by lack of two electrons by Mg atom.
Therefore, it has two electrons less than the number of electrons in Mg atom.

Mg2+ = Mg – 2e
Number of electrons = 12-2 = 10

Number of protons = 12
Number of neutrons = (24- 12) = 12.

Example. 5.2. The variety of protons within the nucleus of an atom of mass quantity ninety seven is forty one. What would be the variety of neutrons in its isotope of mass number ninety nine

Resolution. The atomic variety of isotopes is same. Therefore, the variety of protons in both the atoms is similar.

Mass quantity= Variety of protons + Number of neutrons
. . Variety of neutrons

= Mass quantity-Number of protons
=ninety nine-forty one=fifty eight.

Example 5.3. If the variety of electrons in an atom is eight and number of protons can be eight, then
(i) What is the atomic variety of the element

(ii) What’s the charge on the atom
Resolution. (i) Atomic variety of the aspect

= Variety of protons in the atom = eight
(ii) There isn’t any cost on the atom because the variety of protons is

equal to the number of electrons.
Instance 5.4 The nucleus of an atom of a certain isotope incorporates 6 protons and 7 neutrons. What is the atomic number and the mass variety of this isotope To which ingredient does it belong

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